Financial statements are written records that convey the business activities and the financial performance of a company. Accounting & Financial Statements are often audited by government agencies, accountants, firms, etc. to ensure accuracy and for tax, financing, or investing purposes.
Financial statements include:
- Balance sheet
The balance sheet displays the company’s assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity at a point in time. As commonly known, assets must equal liabilities plus equity. The asset section begins with cash and equivalents, which should equal the balance found at the end of the cash flow statement. The balance sheet then displays the changes in each major account from period to period. Net income from the income statement flows into the balance sheet as a change in retained earnings (adjusted for payment of dividends).
- Income statement:
Often, the first place an investor or analyst will look is the income statement. The income statement shows the performance of the business throughout each period, displaying sales revenue at the very top. The statement then deducts the cost of goods sold (COGS) to find gross profit. From there, the gross profit is affected by other operating expenses and income, depending on the nature of the business, to reach net income at the bottom – “the bottom line” for the business.
- Cash flow statement:
The cash flow statement then takes net income and adjusts it for any non-cash expenses. Then, using changes in the balance sheet, usage and receipt of cash is found. The cash flow statement displays the change in cash per period, as well as the beginning balance and ending balance of cash.
We hope this has been a helpful overview for you of the 3 financial statements.